By prohibiting trade unions from requiring non-members to pay a « service » or « fair share » fee to cover the basic costs of administering the contract, the governments of the Länder have the power to limit the conditions that private employers and their employees can negotiate within the framework of a collective agreement. Trade unions in « right to work » countries are forced to bear the costs of appeal and arbitration on behalf of non-members who benefit from the terms of a collective agreement, but who do not contribute to the union`s operating fund. . . .