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Agricultural risk assessment of climate change in the 21st century in a global comparison of Gridded Crop model. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. United States 111, 3268-3273 (2013). The origin of the 1.5oC Paris Agreement stems from the concern of vulnerable countries about the negative consequences of a warming of 2oC. In 2014, the UNFCCC established a process to determine whether Cancun`s long-term goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius is sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change and to consider « strengthening the long-term global goal based on the best available scientific knowledge, including an average global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius. » This process ended in 2015 with the final report of its scientific arm (Structured Expert Dialogue), which concluded that the use of the global warming limit of 2oC as a « protection barrier » was not safe and that governments should instead aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius. It was found that the 2oC limit was not in line with the convention`s ultimate goal of « preventing dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the climate system. » This was an important contribution to the ongoing negotiations on the Paris Agreement at the time and ultimately led to the long-term goal of the Paris Agreement on temperature in Article 2.1, as described above.